The SCAR GeoMAP (Geological Mapping Update of Antarctica) action group was an international effort to gather both rock and surficial deposit information and compile it into a modern GIS framework. The group ended in 2020, having met its aim with the release of an initial draft geological dataset v.2019-07, but GNS Science has continued working and improving these data (latest release v.2022-08). More information can be found on the GeoMAP resource page.
The group was led by Simon Cox and Paul Morin, with help from many other people and organisations (view the pdf list of members, collaborators and supporters (136 KB) from 2019). Work started from a continent-scale, low density, attribute-poor dataset in 2015 that was added to and improved through multiple iterations during 2018-2022. It involved capturing existing geological map data, refining its spatial reliability, then improving representation of glacial sequences and geomorphology. GeoMAP depicts ‘known geology’ of rock exposures rather than ‘interpreted’ sub-ice features and is aimed towards continent-wide perspectives and cross-discipline interrogation.
Access the GeoMAP Download Page
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GeoMAP material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The following citation for GeoMAP.v.2022-08 is suggested:
Cox, Simon Christopher; Smith Lyttle, Belinda; Elkind, Samuel; Smith Siddoway, Christine; Morin, Paul; Capponi, Giovanni; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Ballinger, Matilda; Bamber, Lauren; Kitchener, Brett; Lelli, Luigi; Mawson, Jasmine F; Millikin, Alexie; Dal Seno, Nicola; Whitburn, Louis; White, Tristan; Burton-Johnson, Alex; Crispini, Laura; Elliot, David; Elvevold, Synnove; Goodge, John W; Halpin, Jacqueline A; Jacobs, Joachim; Mikhalsky, Eugene; Martin, Adam P; Morgan, Fraser; Smellie, John; Scadden, Phil; Wilson, Gary (2023): The GeoMAP (v.2022-08) continent-wide detailed geological dataset of Antarctica. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.951482
A GeoMAP web-based explorer can be accessed directly through Antarctic Explorer.
A History of GeoMAP
There are numerous, hard-copy, regional-scale geological maps of Antarctica that were developed last century. Many have been scanned, some have been geo-referenced, but few are more than raster digital information. For the most part they are geologically reliable for defining bedrock geology (‘deep time’) but unfortunately they contain little representation of glacial geology. The maps have poor spatial reliability in the context of modern science (located by GPS and other satellite sensors), and the maps have not kept pace with the present importance of Antarctica’s role in climate change.
Following publication of the New Zealand Geological Map and the South Victoria Land mapsheet in 2012, GNS Science launched an ambitious project to build a similar high-quality, digital, geological dataset covering the entire Antarctic continent. Enthusiasm and support was sought at the 2014 Open Science Conference in Auckland through formation of a SCAR Action Group.
Five-years later, the first (beta-testing) version of GeoMAP (v.2019-07) was released at the ISAES XIII meeting, primarily for comment and informal peer review. It then underwent a series of revisions by GNS Science which greatly improved definition of glacial sequences, classification of Antarctic Peninsula geology, and links to original mapping and spatial bibliography. The latest version (v.2022-08) contains an innovative time-space plot legend.
Construction involved a ‘top-down’ work-stream, starting from a continent-scale, low density, attribute-poor dataset that has been added to and improved through multiple iterations. It involved capturing existing geological map data, refining its spatial reliability, then improving representation of glacial sequences and geomorphology. Feature classification and description rock and moraine polygons employs international GeoSciML data protocols to provide attribute-rich and queriable data; including bibliographic links to source maps and literature.
Around 99,000 polygons are now unified for use at 1:250000 scale, but locally have areas with higher spatial precision, founded on a mixed chronostratigraphic- and lithostratigraphic-based classification. There has been a specific focus on representation of glacial deposits because of their potential to contain records of ice fluctuations of relevance to climate change.
The project has involved principal collaborators from USA, Norway, Italy, UK, Australia, Russia and New Zealand, but includes contributions from at least 14 nations. Much of the manual work has been completed by an ‘engine room’ of 11 student volunteers, who visited New Zealand on SCAR or Witter-supported internships, or worked remotely by video-conferencing in return for supervision and GIS-training. Many others have provided advice, data and support. View the pdf list of members, collaborators and supporters (136 KB) for more information.
GNS Science’s latest contribution to GeoMAP was funded under the Regional Geological Map Archive and Datafile project, one of the Nationally Significant Collections and Databases supported by the New Zealand Government’s Strategic Science Investment Fund (contract C05X1701).
Quality and Expected Use
As the dataset has been worked on, it has improved in both its geological interpretation and spatial accuracy. One of the hardest tasks has been, and still is, building consistency and capturing the local nuances of different interpretations available. There will undoubtedly be debate as to how well this has been achieved for v.2022-08, which has geological polygons (99,080) classified into 186 chronostratigraphic units and 21 simplified geological classes. There is full-expectation that GeoMAP will continue to evolve and improve over time. As well as geological units, faults, and bibliographic sources there is a quality layer providing information on the attention various areas have received and the relative quality of the information provided (Scale Lowest=1 to Highest=5).
In many ways GeoMAP is like a spatial Wikipedia of Antarctic geology. It may not be a first port of call for specialists undertaking detailed research, but all the information is present to provide introductory overviews and bibliographic links to original work. There is potential to provide fresh perspectives, for example, through combined geological legends and interrogation of continent-wide time-space plots. GeoMAP should be ideal for continent-wide perspectives and cross-discipline science.
Terms of Reference for the Group
This group aimed to facilitate an integrated programme to promote the capture of existing geological map data, update its spatial reliability, improve representation of glacial sequences and geomorphology, and enable data delivery via web-feature services.
Objectives were to:
- Solicit wide international representation.
- Debate and decide on GIS-data structure and delivery mechanism:
- Debate the relative merit of a distributed database like OneGeology, versus a centralised database model;
- Ensure adopted process enables retention of academic and custodial rights (sovereignty) as/where necessary.
- Convert geological maps into GIS-databases and smart web feature services.
- Improve definition of glacial geology and geomorphology using satellite imagery and remote sensing, local age-dating studies.
- Find a host for web services, perhaps utilising Geoserver or ArcGIS Server, in WMS smart image form or in WFS feature form (utilising GeoSciML).
- Prepare paper outlining geological nomenclature and classification issues that arise.
- Highlight areas for targeted research and/or the need for new geological field work.
- Facilitate exchanges of early-career and other scientists with an interest in spatial representation of the geosphere.
15 April 2021197 KB1042 downloads
16 September 201961 KB1389 downloads
05 September 2019105 KB1967 downloads
17 July 20193.12 MB1041 downloads
17 July 2019536 KB745 downloads
20 September 20186.28 MB3081 downloads
02 August 2017937 KB2991 downloads
19 January 20177.11 MB1703 downloads
30 August 20162.13 MB2831 downloads
pdf "Towards a digital dataset of the Antarctic geosphere" (7.11 MB) - a Powerpoint presentation on the SCAR GeoMAP project, its work and the progress made up to 2016 in mapping the geosphere.
GeoMAP Workshop 2015
GeoMAP held a workshop at the XII ISAES Meeting in July 2015 called "Towards improved geological maps of Antarctic rocks and surficial deposits":
pdf GeoMAP Workshop 2015: Towards Improved Geological Maps of Antarctic Rocks and Surficial Deposits (Announcement) Popular12 April 2018133 KB743 downloads
pdf GeoMAP Workshop 2015: Towards Improved Geological Maps of Antarctic Rocks and Surficial Deposits - Summary Popular12 July 2015140 KB795 downloads
pdf GeoMAP Workshop 2015: Towards Improved Geological Maps of Antarctic Rocks and Surficial Deposits (Slides and Notes) Popular12 July 20151.11 MB882 downloads