Iceberg banner13

Science Menu

GNSS Research and Application for Polar Environment (GRAPE)

Publications, Data and Links of interest to the Antarctic Space Weather Community

+ Publications

GRAPE reports:
Selected GRAPE papers:


  • Deshpande, K. B., G. S. Bust, C. R. Clauer, H. Kim, J. E. Macon, T. E. Humphreys, J. A. Bhatti, S. B. Musko, G. Crowley, and A. T. Weatherwax (2012), Initial GPS scintillation results from CASES receiver at South Pole, Antarctica, Radio Sci., 47, RS5009, doi:10.1029/2012RS005061.
  • Moro, J., Denardini, C.M., Abdu, M.A., Correia, E., Schuch, N.J., MAKITA, K. Correlation between the cosmic noise absorption calculated from the SARINET data and the energetic particles measured by MEPED: Simultaneous observations over SAMA region. Advances in Space Research. , v.51, p.1692 - 1700, 2012.
  • Moro, J., Denardini, C.M., Correia, E., Abdu, M.A., Schuch, N.J., MAKITA, K. A comparison of two different techniques for deriving the quiet day curve from SARINET riometer data. Annales Geophysicae (Berlin). , v.30, p.1159 - 1168, 2012.
  • Moro, J., C. M. Denardini, M. A. Abdu, E. Correia, N. J. Schuch, and K. Makita (2012), Latitudinal dependence of cosmic noise absorption in the ionosphere over the SAMA region during the September 2008 magnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A06311, doi:10.1029/2011JA017405.
  • Jayachandran, P. T., K. Hosokawa, K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, C. J. Watson, S. C. Mushini, J. W. MacDougall, P. Prikryl, R. Chadwick, and T. D. Kelly (2012), GPS Total Electron Content Variations Associated with Poleward Moving Sun Aligned Arcs, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JA017423
  • Kinrade, J., C. N. Mitchell, P. Yin, N. Smith, M. J. Jarvis, D. J. Maxfield, M. C. Rose, G. S. Bust, and A. T. Weatherwax (2012), Ionospheric scintillation over Antarctica during the storm of 5–6 April 2010, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A05304, doi:10.1029/2011JA017073.
  • Prikryl, P., P. T. Jayachandran, S. C. Mushini, and I. G. Richardson (2012), Toward the probabilistic forecasting of high-latitude GPS phase scintillation, Space Weather, 10, S08005, doi:10.1029/2012SW000800.


  • De Franceschi Giorgiana and Candidi Maurizio, GRAPE, GNSS Research and Application for Polar Environment, Expert Group of SCAR. Annals of Geophysics, Special Issue, Vol. 56, No2 (2013), ISSN 2037-416X.
  • Prikryl, P., Ghoddousi-Fard, R., Kunduri, B. S. R., Thomas, E. G., Coster, A. J., Jayachandran, P. T., Spanswick, E., and Danskin, D. W.: GPS phase scintillation and proxy index at high latitudes during a moderate geomagnetic storm, Ann. Geophys., 31, 805-816, doi:10.5194/angeo-31-805-2013, 2013.
  • Prikryl, P., Y. Zhang, Y. Ebihara, R. Ghoddousi-Fard, P. T. Jayachandran, J. Kinrade, C. N. Mitchell, A. T. Weatherwax, G. Bust, P. J. Cilliers, L. Spogli, L. Alfonsi, G. De Franceschi, V. Romano, B. Ning, G. Li, M. J. Jarvis, D. W. Danskin, E. Spanswick, E. Donovan and M. Terkildsen, An interhemispheric comparison of GPS phase scintillation with auroral emission observed at South Pole and from DMSP satellite, Special Issue of Annals of Geophysics, 56, 2, 2013, R0216; doi:10.4401/ag-6227.
  • Prikryl, P. V. Sreeja, M. Aquino, and P. T. Jayachandran, Probabilistic forecasting of ionospheric scintillation and GNSS receiver signal tracking performance at high latitudes, Special Issue of Annals of Geophysics, 56, 2, 2013, R0222; doi:10.4401/ag-6219.Sarti P., Negusini M., Tomasi C., Petkov B., Capra A. (2013). Thirteen years of integrated precipitable water derived by GPS at Mario Zucchelli Station, Antarctica. Annals of Geophysics, Special Issue, 56, 2, 2013. ISSN: 2037-416X. doi: 10.4401/ag-6228
  • Correia, E., Paz, A. J., Gende, M.A. Characterization of GPS-TEC in Antarctica from 2004 to 2011. Annals of Geophysics. , v.56, p.R0217-1 - R0217-5, 2013.
  • Fernandez, José Henrique, Correia, E. Electron precipitation events in the lower ionosphere and the geospace conditions. Annals of Geophysics. , v.56, p.R0218-1 - R0218-10, 2013.
  • Spogli, L., Alfonsi, L., Cilliers, P., Correia, E., De Franceschi, G., Mitchell, C.N., Romano, V., Kinrade, J., Cabrera, M. A. GPS scintillations and TEC climatology in the southern low, middle and high 2 latitude regions. Annals of Geophysics. , v.56, p.R0220-1 - R0220-12, 2013.
  • Correia, E., Raulin, J. P., Kaufmann, P., Bertoni, F. C., Quevedo, M.T. Inter-hemispheric analysis of daytime low ionosphere behavior from 2007 to 2011. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. , v.92, p.51 - 58, 2013.
  • Correia, E., Raulin, J. P., Kaufmann, P., Gavilán, H. R. Atmospheric changes observed in antarctica related to the sun-earth interactions. Annual Activity Report - INCT-APA. , v.3, p.20 - 25, 2013.
  • Correia, E., Makhmutov, Vladimir S, Raulin, Jean Pierre, Makita, K. Mid- and low-latitude response of the lower ionosphere to solar proton events on January 2012. IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science (Online). , v.409, p.1/012186 - 4, 2013.


  • Koustov, A. V., P. V. Ponomarenko, M. Ghezelbash, D. R. Themens, and P. T. Jayachandran (2014), Electron density and electric field over Resolute Bay and F region ionospheric echo detection with the Rankin Inlet and Inuvik SuperDARN radars, Radio Sci., 49, doi:10.1002/2014RS005579.
  • Prikryl P., Jayachandran P. T., Mushini S. C., Richardson I. G., High- latitude GPS phase scintillation and cycle slips during high speed solar wind streams and interplanetary coronal mass ejections: A superposed epoch analysis, Earth, Planets and Space, 66 :62, 2014.
  • Raulin, Jean Pierre, Trottet, Gerard, Gimenez de Castro, C. G., Correia, E., Macotela, E. L. Nighttime Sensitivity of Ionospheric VLF Measurements to X-ray Bursts From a Remote Cosmic Source. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics., 2014. DOI:10.1002/2013JA019670
  • Ghezelbash, M., A. Koustov, D.R. Themens, and P.T. Jayachandran (2014). Seasonal and diurnal variations of PolarDARN F region echo occurrence in the polar cap and their causes, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 10,426–10,439, doi:10.1002/2014JA020726.
  • Themens, D. R., P. T. Jayachandran, M. J. Nicolls, and J. W. MacDougall (2014), A top to bottom evaluation of IRI 2007 within the polar cap, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 6689–6703, doi:10.1002/2014JA020052.


  • Athieno, R., P.T. Jayachandran, D.R. Themens, and D.W. Danskin (2015), Comparison of observed and predicted MUF(3000)F2 in the Polar cap region , Radio Sci., 50, 509–517. doi:10.1002/2015RS005725.
  • Prikryl, P., Ghoddousi-Fard, R., Spogli, L., Mitchell, C. N., Li, G., Ning, B., Cilliers, P. J., Sreeja, V., Aquino, M., Terkildsen, M., Jayachandran, P. T., Jiao, Y., Morton, Y. T., Ruohoniemi, J. M., Thomas, E. G., Zhang, Y., Weatherwax, A. T., Alfonsi, L., De Franceschi, G., and Romano, V.: GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes during geomagnetic storms of 7–17 March 2012 – Part 2: Interhemispheric comparison, Ann. Geophys., 33, 657-670, doi:10.5194/angeo-33-657-2015, 2015.
  • Linty, N., Romero, R., Dovis, F., & Alfonsi, L. (2015, May). Benefits of GNSS software receivers for ionospheric monitoring at high latitudes. In Radio Science Conference (URSI AT-RASC), 2015 1st URSI Atlantic (pp. 1-6). IEEE. doi:10.1109/URSI-AT-RASC.2015.7303110
  • Cilliers, P., Alfonsi, L., & Spogli, L. (2015, May). GNSS scintillation climatology at SANAE-IV, Antarctica: 2006 to 2014. In Radio Science Conference (URSI AT-RASC), 2015 1st URSI Atlantic (pp. 1-1). IEEE. doi: 10.1109/URSI-AT-RASC.2015.7303100
  • Terzo, O., Ruiu, P., Alfonsi, L., Romano, V., & Spogli, L. (2015, May). International cloud infrastructure for space weather data management: The DemoGRAPE challenge. In Radio Science Conference (URSI AT-RASC), 2015 1st URSI Atlantic (pp. 1-1). IEEE.RASC.2015.7303109
  • Themens, D. R., P. T. Jayachandran, and R. B. Langley (2015), The nature of GPS differential receiver bias variability: An examination in the polar cap region, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 8155– 8175, doi:10.1002/2015JA021639


  • Linty, N., Dovis, F., Romero, R., Cristodaro, C., Alfonsi, L., Correia, E., "Monitoring Ionosphere Over Antarctica by Means of a GNSS Signal Acquisition System and a Software Radio Receiver, "Proceedings of the 2016 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation, Monterey, California, January 2016, pp. 549-555
  • Themens, D.R., and P.T. Jayachandran (2016), Solar Activity Variability in the IRI at high latitudes: Comparisons with GPS Total Electron Content, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 3793–3807, doi:10.1002/2016JA022664.
  • A. Favenza, N. Linty, F. Dovis, “Exploiting Standardized Metadata For GNSS SDR Remote Processing: a Case Study.", Proceedings of the 29th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2016), Portland (Oregon), September 12-16, 2016, (in publication).
  • Linty N., Romero R., Cristodaro C., Dovis F., Bavaro M., Curran J., Fortuny-Guasch J., Ward J., Lamprecht G., Riley P., Cilliers P., Correia E. and L. Alfonsi (2016), Ionospheric scintillation threats to GNSS in polar regions: the DemoGRAPE case study in Antarctica, ENC 2016 IEEE Xplore Database and Conference Proceedings (in publication).
  • Yamazaki, Y., M. J. Kosch, Y. Ogawa, and D. R. Themens (2016), High-latitude Ion Temperature Climatology during the International Polar Year 2007–2008, Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate. (Submitted March 4th, 2016)
  • Bergeot N., Chevalier J.-M., Bruyninx C., Denis G., Camelbeeck T., Van Dam T. and Francis O., Study of space weather impact on Antarctica ionosphere from GNSS data, BNCGG - BNCAR symposium, Brussels, Belgium, April 29, 2016 (Presentation).
  • Bruyninx C., Bergeot N., Van Dam T., Camelbeeck T., Francis O. and Tabibi S., High precision GNSS infrastructure around the Princess Elisabeth Base, BNCGG - BNCAR symposium, Brussels, Belgium, April 29, 2016 (Presentation)

+ Data

GRAPE focuses in particular on GNSS high sampling rate (50 Hz) receivers network at bipolar latitudes. Information on raw data and related products [Total Electron Content (TEC), scintillation indices, Rate of TEC (ROT), etc.] are available at:

INGV's Electronic Space Weather Upper Atmosphere, Italy:

GNSS Group, Belgium:

Madrigal Database:

Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network:

South African National Space Agency:
SANSA Geomagnetic data:

See also the membership section for other useful contacts related to data availability.


+ Links

See the GRAPE Website.

Other useful links:


Electronic Space Weather Upper Atmosphere, INGV, Italy:

GNSS Group, Belgium:

Madrigal Database, Haystack Observatory:

Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network:

South African National Space Agency:

Dirección Nacional del Antártico, Instituto Antártico Argentino:

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil:

Hornsund Polish Polar Station:

Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition:

Australian Antarctic Division: