space banner6

International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) Expert Group

The IBCSO Poster, 2013, is a polar stereographic view of the Southern Ocean displaying bathymetric contours south of 60° S at a scale of 1:7,000,000. The poster size is 39.25 x 47.125 inches.

To cite this chart or the IBCSO grid please use:

Arndt, J.E., H. W. Schenke, M. Jakobsson, F. Nitsche, G. Buys, B. Goleby, M. Rebesco, F. Bohoyo, J.K. Hong, J. Black, R. Greku, G. Udintsev, F. Barrios, W. Reynoso-Peralta, T. Morishita, R. Wigley, "The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) Version 1.0 - A new bathymetric compilation covering circum-Antarctic waters", Geophysical Research Letters, doi: 10.1002/grl.50413

General Information:

The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) program is endorsed by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). Since 2004, IBCSO has been an Expert Group within the SCAR Standing Scientific Group on GeoSciences (SSG-GS). In 2006, IBCSO was established as a regional ocean mapping project under the IHO/IOC General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) program. The project aim is to generate the first seamless bathymetric grid of the Southern Ocean covering the entire Antarctic Treaty Area south of 60 degrees S by compiling all available data from various international sources. The IBCSO v1.0 grid has a resolution of 500 m x 500 m and is based on a polar stereographic projection at 65 degrees S on the WGS-84 ellipsoid. The grid is available as open source for download. This printed chart represents one product resulting from the IBCSO project.
Bathymetric grid generation:

The IBCSO data base consists of more than 4200 million ocean soundings from various sources worldwide. The data sets are of diverse type and quality. About 98% of the data points are from multibeam surveys. The remaining 2% are from singlebeam surveys, digitized Nautical Charts, or data sets containing various types of data. Approximately 17 % of the bathymetric grid cells are directly constrained by real soundings.

The subglacial bed elevation layer of Bedmap2 was used for the topography of continental Antarctica and for the sub ice-shelf bathymetry. Sonar sounding data were validated, homogenized and stored into a generic data format to generate the IBCSO digital bathymetric model. The data was subsequently cleaned and gridded in an iterative process until a satisfactory result was achieved. The gridding utilized the remove-restore method in conjunction with the newly developed gap-fill method. The gap-fill method is restocking major spatial data gaps with aligned predicted bathymetry. The applied remove-restore method was a two-step gridding algorithm. Firstly, the entire dataset was gridded at low resolution, here 2000 m, using the bi-cubic splines under tension algorithm. The grid was then filtered and resampled at high resolution, here 500 m. Secondly, all high quality data with sufficient areal density, i.e. from multibeam surveys, was gridded at high resolution using the nearest neighbor gridding algorithm. Finally, in locations where high quality data was available, grid cells from the lower resolution grid were removed and restored by the high quality data grid cells. The gap-fill method compared the GEBCO_08 grid, created using predicted bathymetry, to sonar soundings of the IBCSO data base. A blockmedian filter, with 10 km cellsize, was applied to the depth differences of the compared points. Based on these points, a difference grid was created to adjust the GEBCO_08 grid. In a final step, the adjusted bathymetric model replaced the interpolated areas outside a 10 km transition zone next to grid cells, directly constrained by soundings. In the transition zone both grids were bent into each other using the hyperbolic weighting function 1/d, with d being the distance to the next directly constrained cell. For a more detailed description of the grid generation please see the IBCSO release paper (Arndt et al 2013; doi:10.1002/grl.50413).

Chart generation:

Bathymetric and topographic elevations are from the IBCSO v1.0 grid. Ice surface elevations are from the Bedmap2 data set. Coastlines, grounding lines, rock outcrops, and the names and positions of permanent stations in Antarctica are taken from the SCAR Antarctic Digital Database v6.0. Names of undersea features are taken from the GEBCO Sub-Committee on Undersea Feature Names (SCUFN) Gazetteer, Edition 2011. Names of ocean bodies are taken from the 4th edition of IHO Publication S-23, "Limits of Oceans and Seas". Names on continental Antarctica are taken from the SCAR Composite Gazetteer (CGA). The selection of the names has been agreed on by the members of the Editorial Board.
Grid and Chart retrieval:

The IBCSO v1.0 grid can be obtained from the project website (www.ibcso.org) or via doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.805736 in different data formats and projections. A digital copy of this chart in PDF format can be retrieved from the same source.

For additional information and data from IBCSO, please visit the IBCSO web pages:

http://www.ibcso.org.

Publications, Data and Links of interest to the Southern Ocean Bathymetry Community

+ Publications

IBCSO reports:
 
Antarctic Map: Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage:

In December 2016, a new Antarctic map, “Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage”, was released.  This SCAR product represented an international collaborative effort coordinated by the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), working together with the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) and the United States Antarctic Program (USAP)

The map covers an area of 1470000 km2 between parallels 52ºS and 63ºS and between meridians 70ºW and 50ºW, where the high resolution bathymetric data covers more than 70% of the region with a 200 m cell resolution of the sea floor topography. The data were collected over the last 25 years on more than one hundred oceanographic cruises onboard six different Antarctic research vessels.  This initiative is part of SCAR's IBCSO (International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean) Expert Group, which recognises the importance of regional data compilations in Antarctic areas of particular scientific interest.  The map has been published by the BAS and the IGME, with support from SCAR through the Geosciences Group.

The Drake Passage is an oceanic gateway of approximately 850 km width located between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula that connects the southeastern Pacific and the southwestern Atlantic oceans and influences mantle flow, oceanographic water mass exchanges and migrations of biota. This gateway opened within the framework of the geological evolution of the Scotia Arc; a tectonic setting which developed since the early Oligocene and includes the Scotia and Sandwich plates. It is bounded to the north by the North Scotia Ridge, to the south by the South Scotia Ridge, to the west by the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and to the east by the South Sandwich Trench. The Scotia Sea contains several active and extinct spreading ridges that led to the opening of the Drake Passage. Several continental banks and oceanic basins are located in Scotia Sea, most notably in its southern part.

IBCSO Drake Geomap 2016 webThe geodynamic evolution of the region, seismic activity and tectonic data suggest a complex evolution of the Drake Passage such that the Shackleton Fracture Zone began as an oceanic ridge-to-ridge transform fault with strike-slip motion along most of its length, and subsequently became a transpressive transcurrent fault zone as it is at present. The Shackleton Fracture Zone, which occupies a central position in the Drake Passage, intersects two extinct spreading centres – the West Scotia Ridge (extinct 6.4 Ma ago) and the Phoenix-Antarctic Ridge (extinct 3 Ma ago), and is an intra-oceanic ridge which rises several hundreds to thousands of metres above the surrounding seafloor. Uplift of the Shackleton Fracture Zone in the last 8 Myr has formed a barrier for oceanic bottom currents.

The opening of the main southern oceanic gateways, Drake Passage and the Tasmanian gateway, separating South America and Australia from Antarctica respectively, permitted the present pattern of global ocean circulation to be established. This allowed extensive exchange of water between the main ocean basins and led to the development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which contributed to the thermal isolation of Antarctica, was partially responsible for global cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and played an important role in middle Miocene cooling.

Reference of the map:

Bohoyo, F., Larter, R.D., Galindo-Zaldívar, J., Leat, P.T., Maldonado, A., Tate, A.J., Gowland, E.J.M., Arndt, J.E., Dorschel, B., Kim, Y.D., Hong, J.K., Flexas, M., López-Martínez, J., Maestro, A., Bermudez, O., Nitsche, F.O., Livermore, R.A., Riley, T.R. 2016. Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage (1:1 500 000). BAS GEOMAP 2 Series, Sheet 7, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK.

 Other Publications:

+ Data

Digital Bathymetric Model (DBM)

The digital bathymetric model (DBM) of IBCSO Version 1.0 has a 500m x 500m resolution based on a Polar Stereographic projection for the area south of 60° S. It is publicly available together with a digital chart for printing.

When using any data from the IBCSO project please cite:
Arndt, J.E., H. W. Schenke, M. Jakobsson, F. Nitsche, G. Buys, B. Goleby, M. Rebesco, F. Bohoyo, J.K. Hong, J. Black, R. Greku, G. Udintsev, F. Barrios, W. Reynoso-Peralta, T. Morishita, R. Wigley, "The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) Version 1.0 - A new bathymetric compilation covering circum-Antarctic waters", 2013, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, p. 3111-3117, doi: 10.1002/grl.50413


Database

IBCSO SID overviewThe IBCSO database currently consists of more than 4200 million data points contributed by more than 30 institutions from 15 countries. In total 177 multibeam cruises were available building the nuclei of the database. Single beam echo sounding data, digitized soundings from nautical charts and regional bathymetric compilations are rounding off the database. A list of datasets used for the compilation of IBCSO Version 1.0 can be downloaded here: 

An overview of included data sources and the spatial distribution can be seen in the source identification map (above right).


The IBCSO group also tries to improve multibeam data acquisition in the future by providing information about the current multibeam coverage in the Southern Ocean. The IBCSO SID can be used to determine where multibeam data has already been surveyed. For an easier access to this information, we also provide a GIS ready shapefile showing the outline of multibeam surveys as of IBCSO V1.0 here:

 

Data Contributions

If you are holding bathymetric data that is not yet included in the IBCSO database, we encourage you to contribute this data to improve the IBCSO digital bathymetric model for the benefit of all. Contributed data will be acknowledged and will only be used to generate the IBCSO digital bathymetric model. To contribute data, please This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..


Cartography data

To enable users to visualize their own data on a map with the IBCSO look and feel, we are offering the base data of the IBCSO printable chart as a georeferenced image. The 'Background' maps contain RGB rasterfiles in GeoTiff format, which is compatible with most GIS programs. In addition, we offer the contours of the IBCSO Version 1.0 bed elevation digital bathymetric model in 500 m intervals as Shape files. 

+ Links

Institutions and Data centers

Programs and Groups

 


Contact

Please contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. for further information on the IBCSO group.


Members of IBCSO

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. (Co-Chair) Alfred Wegener Institute Germany
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. (Co-Chair) Alfred Wegener Institute Germany
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. University of Stockholm Sweden
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. LDEO USA
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. British Antarctic Survey UK
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. OGS Italy
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. IGME Spain
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. KOPRI Korea
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. GNS New Zealand
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Geoscience Australia Australia


If you have substantial interest in the Southern Ocean bathymetry please subscribe to the IBCSO mailing list at the National Geophysical Data Center in Boulder, Colorado.

Institutions and Data centers

Programs and Groups

 

IBCSO reports:
 
Antarctic Map: Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage:

In December 2016, a new Antarctic map, “Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage”, was released.  This SCAR product represented an international collaborative effort coordinated by the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), working together with the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) and the United States Antarctic Program (USAP)

The map covers an area of 1470000 km2 between parallels 52ºS and 63ºS and between meridians 70ºW and 50ºW, where the high resolution bathymetric data covers more than 70% of the region with a 200 m cell resolution of the sea floor topography. The data were collected over the last 25 years on more than one hundred oceanographic cruises onboard six different Antarctic research vessels.  This initiative is part of SCAR's IBCSO (International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean) Expert Group, which recognises the importance of regional data compilations in Antarctic areas of particular scientific interest.  The map has been published by the BAS and the IGME, with support from SCAR through the Geosciences Group.

The Drake Passage is an oceanic gateway of approximately 850 km width located between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula that connects the southeastern Pacific and the southwestern Atlantic oceans and influences mantle flow, oceanographic water mass exchanges and migrations of biota. This gateway opened within the framework of the geological evolution of the Scotia Arc; a tectonic setting which developed since the early Oligocene and includes the Scotia and Sandwich plates. It is bounded to the north by the North Scotia Ridge, to the south by the South Scotia Ridge, to the west by the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and to the east by the South Sandwich Trench. The Scotia Sea contains several active and extinct spreading ridges that led to the opening of the Drake Passage. Several continental banks and oceanic basins are located in Scotia Sea, most notably in its southern part.

IBCSO Drake Geomap 2016 webThe geodynamic evolution of the region, seismic activity and tectonic data suggest a complex evolution of the Drake Passage such that the Shackleton Fracture Zone began as an oceanic ridge-to-ridge transform fault with strike-slip motion along most of its length, and subsequently became a transpressive transcurrent fault zone as it is at present. The Shackleton Fracture Zone, which occupies a central position in the Drake Passage, intersects two extinct spreading centres – the West Scotia Ridge (extinct 6.4 Ma ago) and the Phoenix-Antarctic Ridge (extinct 3 Ma ago), and is an intra-oceanic ridge which rises several hundreds to thousands of metres above the surrounding seafloor. Uplift of the Shackleton Fracture Zone in the last 8 Myr has formed a barrier for oceanic bottom currents.

The opening of the main southern oceanic gateways, Drake Passage and the Tasmanian gateway, separating South America and Australia from Antarctica respectively, permitted the present pattern of global ocean circulation to be established. This allowed extensive exchange of water between the main ocean basins and led to the development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which contributed to the thermal isolation of Antarctica, was partially responsible for global cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and played an important role in middle Miocene cooling.

Reference of the map:

Bohoyo, F., Larter, R.D., Galindo-Zaldívar, J., Leat, P.T., Maldonado, A., Tate, A.J., Gowland, E.J.M., Arndt, J.E., Dorschel, B., Kim, Y.D., Hong, J.K., Flexas, M., López-Martínez, J., Maestro, A., Bermudez, O., Nitsche, F.O., Livermore, R.A., Riley, T.R. 2016. Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage (1:1 500 000). BAS GEOMAP 2 Series, Sheet 7, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK.

 Other Publications: