Publications, Data and Links of interest to the Southern Ocean Bathymetry Community
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11 August 2010283 KB1582 downloads
Antarctic Map: Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage:
In December 2016, a new Antarctic map, “Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage”, was released. This SCAR product represented an international collaborative effort coordinated by the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), working together with the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) and the United States Antarctic Program (USAP).
The map covers an area of 1470000 km2 between parallels 52ºS and 63ºS and between meridians 70ºW and 50ºW, where the high resolution bathymetric data covers more than 70% of the region with a 200 m cell resolution of the sea floor topography. The data were collected over the last 25 years on more than one hundred oceanographic cruises onboard six different Antarctic research vessels. This initiative is part of SCAR's IBCSO (International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean) Expert Group, which recognises the importance of regional data compilations in Antarctic areas of particular scientific interest. The map has been published by the BAS and the IGME, with support from SCAR through the Geosciences Group.
The Drake Passage is an oceanic gateway of approximately 850 km width located between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula that connects the southeastern Pacific and the southwestern Atlantic oceans and influences mantle flow, oceanographic water mass exchanges and migrations of biota. This gateway opened within the framework of the geological evolution of the Scotia Arc; a tectonic setting which developed since the early Oligocene and includes the Scotia and Sandwich plates. It is bounded to the north by the North Scotia Ridge, to the south by the South Scotia Ridge, to the west by the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and to the east by the South Sandwich Trench. The Scotia Sea contains several active and extinct spreading ridges that led to the opening of the Drake Passage. Several continental banks and oceanic basins are located in Scotia Sea, most notably in its southern part.
The geodynamic evolution of the region, seismic activity and tectonic data suggest a complex evolution of the Drake Passage such that the Shackleton Fracture Zone began as an oceanic ridge-to-ridge transform fault with strike-slip motion along most of its length, and subsequently became a transpressive transcurrent fault zone as it is at present. The Shackleton Fracture Zone, which occupies a central position in the Drake Passage, intersects two extinct spreading centres – the West Scotia Ridge (extinct 6.4 Ma ago) and the Phoenix-Antarctic Ridge (extinct 3 Ma ago), and is an intra-oceanic ridge which rises several hundreds to thousands of metres above the surrounding seafloor. Uplift of the Shackleton Fracture Zone in the last 8 Myr has formed a barrier for oceanic bottom currents.
The opening of the main southern oceanic gateways, Drake Passage and the Tasmanian gateway, separating South America and Australia from Antarctica respectively, permitted the present pattern of global ocean circulation to be established. This allowed extensive exchange of water between the main ocean basins and led to the development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which contributed to the thermal isolation of Antarctica, was partially responsible for global cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and played an important role in middle Miocene cooling.
Reference of the map:
Bohoyo, F., Larter, R.D., Galindo-Zaldívar, J., Leat, P.T., Maldonado, A., Tate, A.J., Gowland, E.J.M., Arndt, J.E., Dorschel, B., Kim, Y.D., Hong, J.K., Flexas, M., López-Martínez, J., Maestro, A., Bermudez, O., Nitsche, F.O., Livermore, R.A., Riley, T.R. 2016. Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage (1:1 500 000). BAS GEOMAP 2 Series, Sheet 7, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK.
Poster presentation at the EGU Spring Meeting 2020: Hehemann, L., Arndt, J. E., and Dorschel, B.: IBCSO V2.0: An updated Antarctic bathymetry product of Seabed 2030, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-3529, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-3529, 2020
pdf Poster presentation at XXII ISAES (1.14 MB) , 16. July 2015. Open Poster.
pdf Oral presentation at the Eighth Annual GEBCO Bathymetric Science Day (4.78 MB) in Venice, 8. October 2013.
IBCSO V1.0 Release Paper: "The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) Version 1.0 - A new bathymetric compilation covering circum-Antarctic waters", Geophysical Research Letters, doi: 10.1002/grl.50413, Arndt et al. 2013
pdf Poster presentation at the AGU Fall Meeting (3.42 MB) in San Francisco, 7. December 2012.
pdf Oral presentation at the XXXII SCAR and Open Science Conference in Portland (3.54 MB) , 16. July 2012 entitled 'IBCSO v1 - A preview of the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean'.
pdf Poster presentation at the AGU Fall Meeting (5.42 MB) in San Francisco, 5. December 2011.
Oral presentation at the Intergeo 2008 HTML logo.png, Bremen, Germany, October 2008.
Oral presentation by Ott and Schenke entitled 'Polar Ocean Mapping: Significance of Bathymetry for Observing Systems' at the SCAR/IASC Open Science Conference, St Petersburg, Russia, 8-11 July 2008.
Poster presentation at the SCAR/IASC Open Science Conference, St Petersburg, Russia, 8-11 July 2008.
Joint IBCAO and IBCSO poster presentation at the SCAR/IASC Open Science Conference, St Petersburg, Russia, 8-11 July 2008.
Hydro International Feature Article entitled 'Southern Ocean Bathymetry', November 2007
Oral presentation by Ott and Schenke entitled 'GIS based Data Compilation of the new IBCSO' at the 10th ISAES HTML logo.png , University of California, Santa Barbara, USA, August 2007
Extended Abstract of a poster presentation by Macnab et al., at the International Symposium Asian Collaboration in IPY 2007-2008, Tokyo, Japan, 1 March 2007.
Digital Bathymetric Model (DBM)
The digital bathymetric model (DBM) of IBCSO Version 1.0 has a 500m x 500m resolution based on a Polar Stereographic projection for the area south of 60° S. It is publicly available together with a digital chart for printing.
When using any data from the IBCSO project please cite:
Arndt, J.E., H. W. Schenke, M. Jakobsson, F. Nitsche, G. Buys, B. Goleby, M. Rebesco, F. Bohoyo, J.K. Hong, J. Black, R. Greku, G. Udintsev, F. Barrios, W. Reynoso-Peralta, T. Morishita, R. Wigley, "The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) Version 1.0 - A new bathymetric compilation covering circum-Antarctic waters", 2013, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, p. 3111-3117, doi: 10.1002/grl.50413
The IBCSO database currently consists of more than 4200 million data points contributed by more than 30 institutions from 15 countries. In total 177 multibeam cruises were available building the nuclei of the database. Single beam echo sounding data, digitized soundings from nautical charts and regional bathymetric compilations are rounding off the database. A list of datasets used for the compilation of IBCSO Version 1.0 can be downloaded here:
An overview of included data sources and the spatial distribution can be seen in the source identification map (above right).
The IBCSO group also tries to improve multibeam data acquisition in the future by providing information about the current multibeam coverage in the Southern Ocean. The IBCSO SID can be used to determine where multibeam data has already been surveyed. For an easier access to this information, we also provide a GIS ready shapefile showing the outline of multibeam surveys as of IBCSO V1.0 here:
To enable users to visualize their own data on a map with the IBCSO look and feel, we are offering the base data of the IBCSO printable chart as a georeferenced image. The 'Background' maps contain RGB rasterfiles in GeoTiff format, which is compatible with most GIS programs. In addition, we offer the contours of the IBCSO Version 1.0 bed elevation digital bathymetric model in 500 m intervals as Shape files.
Institutions and Data Centres
- Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI)
- All-Russia Research Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the World Ocean (VNIIOkeangeologia)
- Australian Antarctic Program
- Australian Hydrographic Office (AHO)
- British Antarctic Survey (BAS)
- British Oceanographic Data Center (BODC)
- Centro de Investigaciones Oceanográficas e Hidrográficas (CIOH) - Colombia
- General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO)
- Geoscience Australia (GA)
- Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department Japan Coast Guard (JCG)
- IHO Data Center for Digital Bathymetry (DCDB)
- Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER)
- Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS) - New Zealand
- Institute of Geological Sciences (IGS) - Ukraine
- Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tieraa (CSIC) - Spain
- Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana (IGME)
- Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR) - Italy
- Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (INOGS) - Italy
- Italian Hydrographic Institute (IHI)
- James Cook University (JCU) - Australia
- Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)
- Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE)
- Japan Oceanographic Data Center (JODC)
- Korean Polar Research Institute (KOPRI)
- Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO)
- Marina Difesa - Italy
- Marine National Facility (MNF) - Australia
- National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)
- National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) - USA
- National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) - New Zealand
- National Science Foundation (NSF) - USA
- National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) - Japan
- Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI)
- Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)
- Servicio de Hidrografia Naval (SHN) - Argentina
- Servicio Hidrografico y Oceanografico de la Armada (SHOA) - Chile
- South African Navy Hydrographic Office (SANHO)
- State Oceanic Administration (SOA) - China
- Stockholm University (SU)
- Swiss Polar Institute (SPI)
- Ukraine Antarctic Expedition (UAE)
- United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (UKHO)
- United States Geological Survey (USGS)
- Universidad de Granada (UGR)
- Universita degli Studi di Trieste
- University of Tasmania (UTAS)
- Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry - Russia
- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)
Programs and Groups
- BedMachine v3
- Bed Topography of the Antarctic (BEDMAP2)
- General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO)
- International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO)
- International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
- Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO
- SCAR Antarctic Digital Database (ADD)
- SCAR Science Group on GeoSciences (GS)
- Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR)
- Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM Plus)
- Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS)